Merchants of Doubt

Merchants of Doubt


  • Release: 2011-10-03
  • Publisher: A&C Black
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 368 page
  • ISBN: 9781408828779
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The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. These scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. Remarkably, the same individuals surface repeatedly-some of the same figures who have claimed that the science of global warming is "not settled" denied the truth of studies linking smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. "Doubt is our product," wrote one tobacco executive. These "experts" supplied it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how ideology and corporate interests, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era.

Merchants of Doubt

Merchants of Doubt


  • Release: 2010-06-03
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 368 page
  • ISBN: 1608192938
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The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. Our scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. Remarkably, the same individuals surface repeatedly-some of the same figures who have claimed that the science of global warming is "not settled" denied the truth of studies linking smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. "Doubt is our product," wrote one tobacco executive. These "experts" supplied it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how ideology and corporate interests, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era.

Merchants of Doubt

Merchants of Doubt


  • Release: 2011-05-31
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 355 page
  • ISBN: 9781608193943
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Documents the troubling influence of a small group of scientists who the author contends misrepresent scientific facts to advance key political and economic agendas, revealing the interests behind their detractions on findings about acid rain, DDT, and other hazards.

Why Trust Science

Why Trust Science


  • Release: 2019-10-22
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 376 page
  • ISBN: 9780691179001
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Why the social character of scientific knowledge makes it trustworthy Do doctors really know what they are talking about when they tell us vaccines are safe? Should we take climate experts at their word when they warn us about the perils of global warming? Why should we trust science when our own politicians don't? In this landmark book, Naomi Oreskes offers a bold and compelling defense of science, revealing why the social character of scientific knowledge is its greatest strength—and the greatest reason we can trust it. Tracing the history and philosophy of science from the late nineteenth century to today, Oreskes explains that, contrary to popular belief, there is no single scientific method. Rather, the trustworthiness of scientific claims derives from the social process by which they are rigorously vetted. This process is not perfect—nothing ever is when humans are involved—but she draws vital lessons from cases where scientists got it wrong. Oreskes shows how consensus is a crucial indicator of when a scientific matter has been settled, and when the knowledge produced is likely to be trustworthy. Based on the Tanner Lectures on Human Values at Princeton University, this timely and provocative book features critical responses by climate experts Ottmar Edenhofer and Martin Kowarsch, political scientist Jon Krosnick, philosopher of science Marc Lange, and science historian Susan Lindee, as well as a foreword by political theorist Stephen Macedo.

The Collapse of Western Civilization

The Collapse of Western Civilization


  • Release: 2014-07-01
  • Publisher: Columbia University Press
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 112 page
  • ISBN: 9780231537957
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The year is 2393, and the world is almost unrecognizable. Clear warnings of climate catastrophe went ignored for decades, leading to soaring temperatures, rising sea levels, widespread drought and—finally—the disaster now known as the Great Collapse of 2093, when the disintegration of the West Antarctica Ice Sheet led to mass migration and a complete reshuffling of the global order. Writing from the Second People's Republic of China on the 300th anniversary of the Great Collapse, a senior scholar presents a gripping and deeply disturbing account of how the children of the Enlightenment—the political and economic elites of the so-called advanced industrial societies—failed to act, and so brought about the collapse of Western civilization. In this haunting, provocative work of science-based fiction, Naomi Oreskes and Eric M. Conway imagine a world devastated by climate change. Dramatizing the science in ways traditional nonfiction cannot, the book reasserts the importance of scientists and the work they do and reveals the self-serving interests of the so called "carbon combustion complex" that have turned the practice of science into political fodder. Based on sound scholarship and yet unafraid to speak boldly, this book provides a welcome moment of clarity amid the cacophony of climate change literature.

Science as a Contact Sport

Science as a Contact Sport


  • Release: 2009
  • Publisher: National Geographic Books
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 295 page
  • ISBN: 9781426205408
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Schneider's firsthand account of a scientific and political odyssey, in which he navigates both the turbulent waters of the world's power structures and the arcane theater of academic debaters.

The Triumph of Doubt

The Triumph of Doubt


  • Release: 2020-01-02
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 336 page
  • ISBN: 9780190922672
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Well-heeled American corporations have long had a financial stake in undermining scientific consensus and manufacturing uncertainty. In The Triumph of Doubt, former Obama and Clinton official David Michaels details how corrupt science becomes public policy -- and where it's happening today. Opioids. Concussions. Obesity. Climate Change. America is a country of everyday crises -- big, long-spanning problems that persist despite their toll on the country's health. And for every case of government inaction on one of these issues, there is a set of familiar, doubtful refrains: The science is unclear. The data are inconclusive. Regulation is unjustified. It's a slippery slope. Is it? The Triumph of Doubt traces the ascendance of science-for-hire in American life and government, from its origins in the tobacco industry in the 1950s to its current manifestations across government, public policy, and even professional sports. Amid fraught conversations of "alternative facts" and "truth decay," The Triumph of Doubt wields its unprecedented access to shine a light on the machinations and scope of manipulated science in American society. It is an urgent, revelatory work, one that promises to reorient conversations around science and the public good for the foreseeable future.

Doubt is Their Product

Doubt is Their Product


  • Release: 2008-04-23
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 372 page
  • ISBN: 9780195300673
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A former government regulator reveals how the tobacco industry's duplicitous tactics created a multimillion-dollar industry that is dismantling public health safeguards, in an exposé of how the regulatory system has been further undermined by the Bush adminstration to favor polluters, the manufacturers of dangerous products, and unscrupulous corporate interests.

The Bottom Line Or Public Health

The Bottom Line Or Public Health


  • Release: 2010-03-03
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 570 page
  • ISBN: 9780195375633
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In this book, authors from around the world reveal the range of tactics used across the corporate world that ultimately favor the bottom line over the greater good.

Atmospheric Science at NASA

Atmospheric Science at NASA


  • Release: 2008-11-03
  • Publisher: JHU Press
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 386 page
  • ISBN: 9780801889844
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This book offers an informed and revealing account of NASA's involvement in the scientific understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. Since the nineteenth century, scientists have attempted to understand the complex processes of the Earth's atmosphere and the weather created within it. This effort has evolved with the development of new technologies -- from the first instrument-equipped weather balloons to multibillion-dollar meteorological satellite and planetary science programs. Erik M. Conway chronicles the history of atmospheric science at NASA, tracing the story from its beginnings in 1958, the International Geophysical Year, through to the present, focusing on NASA's programs and research in meteorology, stratospheric ozone depletion, and planetary climates and global warming. But the story is not only a scientific one. NASA's researchers operated within an often politically contentious environment. Although environmental issues garnered strong public and political support in the 1970s, the following decades saw increased opposition to environmentalism as a threat to free market capitalism. Atmospheric Science at NASA critically examines this politically controversial science, dissecting the often convoluted roles, motives, and relationships of the various institutional actors involved -- among them NASA, congressional appropriation committees, government weather and climate bureaus, and the military. -- Kristine C. Harper