WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality

WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality


  • Release: 2009
  • Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 228 page
  • ISBN: 9789289041683
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Microbial pollution is a key element of indoor air pollution. It is caused by hundreds of species of bacteria and fungi, in particular filamentous fungi (mould), growing indoors when sufficient moisture is available. This document provides a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence on health problems associated with building moisture and biological agents. The review concludes that the most important effects are increased prevalences of respiratory symptoms, allergies and asthma as well as perturbation of the immunological system. The document also summarizes the available information on the conditions that determine the presence of mould and measures to control their growth indoors. WHO guidelines for protecting public health are formulated on the basis of the review. The most important means for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. [Ed.]

The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844

The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844


  • Release: 2014-02-12
  • Publisher: BookRix
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 466 page
  • ISBN: 9783730964859
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The Condition of the Working Class in England is one of the best-known works of Friedrich Engels. Originally written in German as Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England, it is a study of the working class in Victorian England. It was also Engels' first book, written during his stay in Manchester from 1842 to 1844. Manchester was then at the very heart of the Industrial Revolution, and Engels compiled his study from his own observations and detailed contemporary reports. Engels argues that the Industrial Revolution made workers worse off. He shows, for example, that in large industrial cities mortality from disease, as well as death-rates for workers were higher than in the countryside. In cities like Manchester and Liverpool mortality from smallpox, measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough was four times as high as in the surrounding countryside, and mortality from convulsions was ten times as high as in the countryside. The overall death-rate in Manchester and Liverpool was significantly higher than the national average (one in 32.72 and one in 31.90 and even one in 29.90, compared with one in 45 or one in 46). An interesting example shows the increase in the overall death-rates in the industrial town of Carlisle where before the introduction of mills (1779–1787), 4,408 out of 10,000 children died before reaching the age of five, and after their introduction the figure rose to 4,738. Before the introduction of mills, 1,006 out of 10,000 adults died before reaching 39 years old, and after their introduction the death rate rose to 1,261 out of 10,000.

Philosophy of Manufactures

Philosophy of Manufactures


  • Release: 2013-09-05
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • Price: FREE
  • File: PDF, 504 page
  • ISBN: 9781136227974
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Andrew Ure (1778-1857) was a professor at the University of Glasgow and an enthusiast for the Industrial Revolution’s new systems of manufacturing. As we know, a consequence of these new developments was the redundancy of many workers, just as we are experiencing today with ‘downsizing’ and ‘reengineering’. This study details the creation of the general education system as an answer to the need for less self-willed and intractable workmen, which were unfit to become "components of a mechanical system". In our times of permanent technological revolution, this is an excellent insight into the roots of industrial progress. Understanding rural workers' shock and their need to readapt to a new urban, factorial reality, and the white collar workers’ dilemma of social security or entrepreneurship is achieved by this fascinating and important book.